Cytogenetic and morphological characteristics of new types of diploids (2n=22, 24, 40) derived from consecutive selfing of aneuploids in brassica crops

Abstract

New types of diploids in Brassica crops were synthesized after three consecutive selfing of aneuploids derived from backcrossing of sesquidiploids (2n=29, AAC) with B. campestris (2n=20, AA). The cytogenetic and morphological characteristics of plants with 2n=22, 24 and 40 in the S3 generation were analyzed in order to establish the extent in which these addition and polyploid lines were stabilized. A high frequency of 11II (79.7%), 12II (84.6%) and 20II (100%), were observed at metaphase I of pollen mother cells in 2n=22, 24 and 40 plants, respectively. The chromosome configuration at methaphase II also indicates that a certain level of stability has been attained cytogenetically. Although pollen stainability was relatively high, the seed set percentage was still low. Variation in morphological characteristics indicate the incorporation of one or more chromosome pairs from the C genome of B. oleracea. Other diagnostic characters such as the formation of determinate inflorescence, branching from the base of the stem, and the shift from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility must have resulted from the interaction between A and C genomes. Thus plants with 2n=22, 24 and 40 have been stabilized to some extent and can be developed into new breeding lines of Brassica. It is suggested that limited pollination could be effective in increasing the seed fertility of these plants.

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