Brassica (Total 11362 Papers Found)

Two different cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) systems, nap and pol, are found in the oilseed rape (canola) species Brassica napus. Physical mapping studies have previously shown that organizational differences between the sterile pol and fertile cam mitochondrial genomes are restricted to a relatively small region immediately upstream of the atp6 gene. An approximately 4.5-kb pol mtDNA segment containing a chimeric open reading frame (orf224) co-transcribed with atp6 is missing from cam mtDNA a ...
BACKGROUND Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP. METHODS AND FINDINGS A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding wome ...
Assessment of yield performance under fluctuating environmental conditions is a major aim of crop breeders. Unfortunately, results from controlled-environment evaluations of complex agronomic traits rarely translate to field performance. A major cause is that crops grown over their complete lifecycle in a greenhouse or growth chamber are generally constricted in their root growth, which influences their response to important abiotic constraints like water or nutrient availability. To overcome th ...
This study investigated the glueless preparation of biomass board using rape straw on a laboratory scale. The board-making process was broken down into four steps: soaking, refining, shape recovery, and hotpressing. To observe the effect of pressure during the hot-press stage on the strength of the bio-board, five panels were manufactured at various pressures. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore how varying the pressure influenced the strength properties of the board. A ...
We studied the effects of different types of dietary fats on fatty acid composition and activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in rat colonic mucosa. Activation of PKC, a key enzyme in signal transduction and growth regulation, provides a mechanism by which dietary components could be involved in colon carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats (n = 12/group) were fed a semisynthetic high fat diet (43% of energy) containing either sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, or butter for 4 weeks ad libitum. The control grou ...
SELF-incompatible Petunia, Tagetes, Trifolium repens and Brassica oleracea have been made self-compatible by spraying the flowering plants with a solution of α-naphthalene acetamide1. This new technique has many possibilities to the plant breeder, but without a more complete study of how it works these possibilities cannot be developed properly. Eyster states that “α naphthalene acetamide neutralizes the effects of an ovarian secretion which diffuses into the style and inhibits or greatly re ...
Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the germination of B. juncea seeds in a concentration dependent manner. As revealed in a time-course study, the ABA-induced inhibition got progressively alleviated with the lapse of time following ABA treatment possibly due to metabolic conversion of applied ABA in the seed tissue. A simultaneous application of certain phenolic compounds namely, p-coumaric-, vanillic-, gallic-, and chlorogenic acid (but not caffeic acid) also caused an alleviation of ABA e ...
MOTIVATION The Brassicaceae family includes the most important plant model Arabidopsis thaliana and many cruciferous vegetable crops. A number of close relatives of Arabidopsis and economically important Brassica species are being sequenced with whole-genome shotgun sequencing technologies. However, de novo assembly of full chromosomes is difficult, since many non-model Brassicaceae species are lacking genetic and/or physical maps. As a unique feature for Brassicaceae, the genome of each member ...
IT is known that application of gibberellic acid causes flowering of many biennials (Hyoscyamus, Apium, Brassica, Daucus, etc.)1. In these cases gibberellic acid substitutes for cold (vernalization) treatment. Treatment of winter cereals (Petkus rye2, barley3, winter wheat4) with gibberellic acid, on the contrary, has been found to have no effect on the induction of normal flowers. Chaylakhian5 has reported that treatment of non-vernalized oats, variety Victory, with gibberellic acid, under shor ...
The funiculus provides the sole channel of communication between the seed and the parent plant; however, little is known about its role in nutrient supply during seed maturation. Here, we investigated the dynamic metabolite profiles of the funiculus during seed maturation in Brassica napus. The funiculus was fully developed at 21 days after flowering (DAF), but the levels of nutrients, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids, increased rapidly from 21 to 35 DAF. Orthogonal partial ...
Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerot ...
2S seed storage albumin coding regions from five Brassica species, namely Brassica campestris, B. oleracea, B. nigra, B. juncea, and B. carinata have been cloned by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using oligonucleotide primers and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. These sequences showed more than 85% homology amongst themselves and considerable homology with some other crucifer 2S protein coding sequences. The deduced amino acid sequences showed more homology due to some inconseq ...
Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mi ...
We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (pr ...
 Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica juncea (2n=36), B. carinata (2n=34) and Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24) were produced when B. juncea and B. carinata cultivars were used as female parents. The hybrids between B. juncea and O. violaceus had an intermediate morphology except for petal colour and were partially fertile. The hybrids between B. carinata and O. violaceus had a matroclinous morphology and were nearly fertile. Cytological analysis of the hybrids and their progenies gave the fol ...
Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat) is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a ...
To establish a cytoplasmic male-sterile/restored fertility (cms-Rf) system for F1 seed production in Brassica napus, we transferred a gene from fertillity restored radish to B. napus by protoplast fusion. X-irradiated protoplasts, isolated from shoots of Raphanus sativus cv Kosena (Rf line), were fused with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts of a B. napus cms cybrid. Among 300 regenerated plants, six were male-fertile. The fertile plants were characterized for petal color, chromosome number and t ...
This case study was conducted to evaluate the use of reclaimed lake sediment as a growth media for vegetable production and to estimate whether accumulation of micronutrients and heavy metals in the vegetables would impact human nutrition or health, respectively. Five plant species, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), pepper (Capsicum annum L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), were grown in pots containing either reclaimed sediment f ...
Seed oil content is an important agricultural trait in rapeseed breeding. Although numerous quantitative trait locus (QTL) have been identified, most of them cannot be applied in practical breeding mainly due to environmental instability or large confidence intervals. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate high quality and more stable QTLs by combining linkage mapping and genome-wide association study (GWAS). For linkage mapping, we constructed two F2 populations from crosses of ...
The stability of a nickel-copper-molybdenum-aluminum catalyst without additives and with the addition of promoting metals (chromium and titanium) in the hydrogenation of rapeseed oils has been investigated. It has been established that the addition of a promotor to the composition of a known catalyst raises the activity and improves the stability of the alloy. The possibility has been revealed of using catalysts that have been poisoned by sulfur compounds, after their regeneration. ...
Field and greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential to use intercropping as an alternative method to increase glucosinolates in Brassicas by manipulating nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) balance by intercropping with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). In both experiments, four combinations of N and S fertilization were used. In the field experiment no effect of intercropping on the total glucosinolate concentration was found as the growing lettuce was strongly inhibi ...
Fifteen different vegetable protein sources found in Pakistan were evaluated for ruminal degradability characteristics through in situ procedure using rumen fistulated Nili-Ravi buffalo steer. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were obtained from 10 different locations. Crude protein (CP) r ...
Intertribal somatic hybrids of Brassica napus and Camelina sativa were developed by protoplast electrofusion. Hybrid identity of the regenerants was determined using flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis. Three hybrids exhibited specific bands for B. napus and C. sativa. These hybrids showed intermediate leaf, flower and seed morphology compared with the two parental species. The seeds of these three hybrids had a modified fatty acid pro ...
Glucosinolates (GL) can inhibit, retard or reverse experimental multistage carcinogenesis. When brassica plant tissue is broken, GLs are hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase (Myr), releasing many products including isothiocyanates (ITC). Synthetic ITCs like sulforaphane exert chemopreventive effects against chemically induced tumors in animals, modulating enzymes required for carcinogens' activation/detoxification and/or the induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell li ...
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables, including benzyl-ITC (BITC), phenethyl-ITC (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN), inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in various cell types. The biochemical mechanisms of cell growth inhibition by ITCs are not fully understood. Our recent study showed that ITC binding to intracellular proteins may be an important initiating event for the induction of apoptosis. However, the specific protein target(s) ...
BMPs (Arizona Legislature, 1987). Best management practices are designed to maintain or enhance yields Water 3 N rate experiments were conducted on subsurface dripand profitability, and to minimize future additions of N irrigated cauliflower (Brassica olearacea L. var. botrytis L.) during three winter growing seasons in southern Arizona. A range of water to groundwater. The use of subsurface drip irrigation and N rates were selected to permit the calculation of appropriate offers the potential f ...
The inclusion of ecotoxicity impacts of pesticides in environmental assessments of biobased products has long been hampered by methodological challenges. We expanded the pesticide database and the regional coverage of the pesticide emission model PestLCI v.2.0, combined it with the impact assessment model USEtox, and assessed potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts (PFEIs) of pesticide use in selected biofuel feedstock production cases, namely: maize (Iowa, US, two cases), rapeseed (Schleswig-H ...
Previously, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX1) activity and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, Bc) heat-tolerant cv. ASVEG2 were found to be significantly higher than in heat-sensitive cv. RN720 under a heat stress. Furthermore, BcAPX2 and BcAPX3, isoforms of BcAPX1, were cloned in this study. Our objective was to transfer BcAPX cDNA under the control of the ubiquitin promoter to Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. We found that BcAPX genes were overexpres ...
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is found in cabbages and other commonly ingested cruciferous vegetables. Isothiocyanates have anticarcinogenic properties, proposed to be mediated in part by their inhibition of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms. We administered PEITC to rats treated chronically with ethanol for 38 days by means of total enteral nutrition model to inhibit CYP2E1. We observed that PEITC not only efficiently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of CYP2E1 apoprotein and mRNA, b ...
Phytoremediation offers owners and managers of metal-contaminated sites an innovative and cost-effective option to address recalcitrant environmental contamination. The use of plants to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate or store metals. This includes the use of plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels for phytoextraction and the use of plants growing under conditions that ...
In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated ex ...
Background Sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) is a global health and human rights problem which is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa because of the compounding effects of high HIV prevalence. In Swaziland a small, land-locked country of just over one million people women and girls face the disproportionate burden of both SGBV and HIV: Nearly half (48%) of those aged 13-24 years reported having experienced some form of sexual violence (including rape, threat of rape, unwanted touch ...
In pots containing sandy soils at two levels (pH 5 and 7) to which 0.5 mg Se L-1 soil had been added, an increase in the proportion of clay soil or peat soil led to a decrease in the uptake of Se by spring wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L., var. Drabant) and winter rape plants (Brassica napus L., var. Emil). The effect was most pronounced for the smallest additions of clay and peat soils. Differences in Se uptake between the two pH levels were greatest in treatments where the additions of clay a ...
Verticillium longisporum is one of the major pathogens of oilseed rape (Brassica napus; genome AACC, 2n = 38) in Europe. Current European cultivars possess only a low level of resistance against V. longisporum, meaning that heavy infection can cause major yield losses. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against V. longisporum as a starting point for marker-assisted breeding of resistant cultivars. Resistance QTL were localized in a segregating oils ...
Somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis is achieved by culturing bending-cotyledon embryos on a 2,4-D-containing induction medium for 14 d followed by a transfer on to a hormone-free development medium. Several genes orthologous to Arabidopsis SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), CLAVATA 1 (CLV1), and ZWILLE (ZLL) were isolated from Brassica oleracea (Bo), B. rapa (Br), and B. napus (Bn), and ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis to assess their effects on somatic embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of BoSTM, BrS ...
Pollen grains of Brassica campestris L. var. acephala DC and B. oleracea L. were serially sectioned and examined using transmission electron microscopy to determine the three-dimensional organization of sperm cells within the microgametophyte and the quantity of membrane-bound organelles occurring within each cell. Sperm cells occur in pairs within each pollen grain, but are dimorphic, differing in size, morphology and mitochondrial content. The larger of the two sperm cells (Svn) is distinguish ...
Somatic hybrids between Brassica alboglabra (CC) and B. campestris (AA) were produced through protoplast fusion. Hybrids of this combination have already been produced through sexual crosses and among other traits in the offspring, a CMS of ogura type was discovered. The reason for generating somatic hybrids was to create new nuclear-cytoplasmic combinations and/or cytoplasmic variants, which could be exploited in combination with the sexual hybrids. Mitosis and meiosis were studied and all hybr ...